Henri Hébrard de Villeneuve had a classical education in Paris and qualified as a lawyer in Paris, and then began a military career before pursuing a career in politics. He was with the Armies of the East and the Loire as Adjutant-Lieutenant on the 32nd Regiment Mobile Puy-de-Dôme. In 1873 he became a member of the State Council, was appointed as an auditor in 1984, and master of requests in 1879. Hébrard de Villeneuve was appointed councillor of state in 1895, President of the National Board of Wards of the State in 1917, Vice-President of the State Council in 1919, and Honorary Chairman. He was elected as a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1920.
Hébrard de Villeneuve was a top fencer, studying under Jean-Baptiste Mimiague, and competing at the 1900 Olympics. In 1906 he founded the National Federation of Fencing which later became the French Fencing Federation, and published a book in 1894, Treatise on Fencing. Hébrard de Villeneuve was co-opted onto the IOC in 1900 and served until 1911 but only attended one IOC Session during his tenure. He was named a Commander of the Legion d’Honneur in 1908.