Henri Bouchard studied at the Académie Julian, the studio of Louis-Ernest Barrias, and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1901, he won the Prix de Rome for his bas-relief Driven from Thebes Oedipus Leaves the City Guided by Antigone. He was a professor at the Academy Julian from 1912-27, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris beginning in 1928. Bouchard was made president of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1936, and became president of The French Artists in 1941. Bouchard produced over a thousand different works. He retained bronze casts, stone sculptures and original plaster works, many of which were found in his studio after his death. His own museum was established shortly after his death in 1960 in his studio at Paris. The sculptor's studio was open to the public from 1962-2007 and was officially listed as a Musée de France in 1985 by the French Ministry of Culture.
In 1941, Bouchard was one of a number of French artists who toured Nazi Geramny at the invitation of Nazi leader Joseph Goebbels. On his return he spoke well of the status of German artists under Fascism and after liberation in 1944, Bouchard was considered a Nazi collaborator, was ostracized by his previous supporters, and was suspended from his professorship.